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Rio+20における7つの重点課題&キーワード集

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Rio+20における7つの重点課題
http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?menu=123

リオ+20では、グリーンエコノミーと制度的枠組みのテーマ設定と共に、
下記7つが重要課題としてあげられています。
*順番は優先順位ではありません。

イシューに関する交渉の状況のレポートです:


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1.JOBS / 仕事

経済不況が仕事の量と質の双方に悪影響を及ぼしている。
この先10年間に予想される1億90万人の失業者と5千万人以上の求職者。労働市場は富を生み出すためだけでなく、平等な富の分配のためにも必要不可欠だ。
社会の結束と安定には、有給の職を創りだす経済活動と社会政策が緊急に必要だ。
また、仕事が自然環境のニーズに適合していることも重要である。
「グリーンジョブ」は、農業、工業、サービス業、そして行政において環境を保護したり、再生させるような仕事である。

Economic recession has taken a toll on both the quantity and quality of jobs.
For the 190 million unemployed, and for over 500 million job seekers over the next 10 years, labour markets are vital not only for the production and generation of wealth, but equally for its distribution.
Economic action and social policies to create gainful employment are critical for social cohesion and stability.
It’s also crucial that work is geared to the needs of the natural environment.
“Green jobs” are positions in agriculture, industry, services and administration that contribute to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ7 – グリーンジョブと社会的包括 (UN-DESA)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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2.ENERGY / エネルギー

今日世界が直面する重要課題と新たな機会のほぼすべてにおいて中心的な問題が、エネルギーだ。
仕事、安全、気候変動、食料生産、そして収入の向上。どれにおいてもエネルギーは欠くことのできないものだ。
持続可能なエネルギーは、経済を強化し、生態系を守り、平等を創出するために必要だ。
国連事務総長のパン・ギムンは全ての人への持続可能なエネルギーイニシアチブ(Sustainable Energy for All initiative)を先導し、近代的なエネルギーサービスへのアクセスを保証し、効率を上げ、再生可能な熱源の利用を増やしていこうと試みている。

Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today.
Be it for jobs, security, climate change, food production or increasing incomes, access to energy for all is essential.
Sustainable energy is needed for strengthening economies, protecting ecosystems and achieving equity.
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is leading a Sustainable Energy for All initiative to ensure universal access to modern energy services, improve efficiency and increase use of renewable sources.

 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む 

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3.CITIES / 都市

都市は、アイディア、商売、文化、科学、生産、社会の成長など様々なものの中心だ。
繁栄した都市は、社会的にも経済的にも人を成長させてきた。
しかし、大地や資源を浪費せずに、仕事と繁栄を生み出し続けていく都市であるためには多くの課題が存在する。
一般的な都市の問題には、渋滞、基本的サービスを提供するための資金不足、住居不足そしてインフラの老朽化などがあげられる。
都市が直面するこれらの問題を、成長し繁栄し続けるような方法で乗り越えることが可能である。そして同時に、資源の利用を改善し、汚染と貧困を削減することも可能だ。

Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more.
At their best, cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically.
However, many challenges exist to maintaining cities in a way that continues to create jobs and prosperity while not straining land and resources.
Common city challenges include congestion, lack of funds to provide basic services, a shortage of adequate housing and declining infrastructure.
The challenges cities face can be overcome in ways that allow them to continue to thrive and grow, while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ5 持続可能な都市(UN-DESA)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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4.FOOD / 食糧

今こそ、どのように食物を育て、共有し、消費しているか考えなおす時だ。
正しく実施されれば、農業、林業そして漁業は全ての人に栄養のある食物を提供し、適切な収入を生み出すことができる。そして、人々を中心に据えた村落の開発と環境の保護を維持できるはずだ。
しかし今、私たちの大地、水、海、森林、そして生物の多様性は急速に失われつつある。
気象変動は、私達が依存する資源を更に圧迫している。
9億2500万人の飢餓に苦しむ人と、2050年までに増加すると予測される20億人を養うためには、世界的な食糧と農業システムに抜本的な変革が必要である。
食糧と農業セクターは開発への鍵となる解決案を提示している。そして、この分野は飢餓と貧困の撲滅への中心問題である。

It is time to rethink how we grow, share and consume our food.
If done right, agriculture, forestry and fisheries can provide nutritious food for all and generate decent incomes, while supporting people-centred rural development and protecting the environment.
But right now, our soils, freshwater, oceans, forests and biodiversity are being rapidly degraded.
Climate change is putting even more pressure on the resources we depend on.
A profound change of the global food and agriculture system is needed if we are to nourish today’s 925 million hungry and the additional 2 billion people expected by 2050.
The food and agriculture sector offers key solutions for development, and is central for hunger and poverty eradication.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ9 – 食の安全と持続可能な農業(UN-DESA)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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5.WATER / 水

清潔で全ての人にとってアクセス可能な水は、私達の理想の世界に欠くことが出来ない要素だ。
この夢を実現させるために十分な淡水が地球には存在している。
しかし、経済的もしくは劣悪なインフラにより、子供を中心として毎年何百万もの人々が不適切な水の支給や衛生状態に関連した病気によって亡くなっている。
水不足、劣悪な水質、そして不衛生な状態が、世界中の貧しい家庭の食の安全、生計の手段、教育の機会に悪影響を及ぼしてきた。
干ばつが世界でも最も貧しい国々を襲い、飢餓と栄養失調を悪化させている。
2050年までには、 4人に1人が慢性的で頻発する淡水不足に悩まされる国に済むことになるだろう。

Clean, accessible water for all is an essential part of the world we want to live in.
There is sufficient fresh water on the planet to achieve this dream.
But due to bad economics or poor infrastructure, every year millions of people, most of them children, die from diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene.
Water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihood choices and educational opportunities for poor families across the world.
Drought afflicts some of the world’s poorest countries, worsening hunger and malnutrition.
By 2050, at least one in four people is likely to live in a country affected by chronic or recurring shortages of fresh water.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ – 水(UN-DESA)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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6.OCEANS / 海

世界の海ー気温、科学的性質、海流そして生物ーこれらが、地球のシステムを突き動かし、地球をヒトが住める場所にしている。
雨水、飲水、気候、気象、海岸、多くの食料、そして空気中の酸素でさえ、最終的には海によって制御され、生み出されている。
昔から、海は貿易と輸送にとって必要不可欠なルートである。
持続的な未来を実現するには、この重要な資源を注意深く管理することが鍵となる。

The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind.
Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea.
Throughout history, oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation.
Careful management of this essential global resource is a key feature of a sustainable future.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ4 – 海 (UN-DESA)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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7.DISASTERS / 災害

地震、洪水、干ばつ、ハリケーン、津波などによって起こされる災害は、人や環境、経済に痛烈な被害を及ぼす。
しかしながら、回復力(そのような被害に耐え素早く回復する、人々や土地の能力)に可能性は残されている。
良い選択は災害から回復する手助けになる。その一方で、悪い選択は災害に対してさらに脆弱にする。
そういった選択は、どのように食料を育てるか、どこにそしてどうやって家を建てるのか、どのようにして経済的仕組みが機能するのか、何を学校で教えるのか、なとといったことに関係している。
頻度を増す自然災害が人命と財産に大きな損害を与える。住宅の集中化が進む中、予め計画し、用心を怠らないようにすることが懸命な判断だ。

Disasters caused by earthquakes, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tsunamis and more can have devastating impacts on people, environments and economies.
But resilience — the ability of people and places to withstand these impacts and recover quickly — remains possible.
Smart choices help us recover from disasters, while poor choices make us more vulnerable.
These choices relate to how we grow our food, where and how we build our homes, how our financial system works, what we teach in schools and more.
With a quickening pace of natural disasters taking a greater toll on lives and property, and a higher degree of concentration of human settlements, a smart future means planning ahead and staying alert.

 イッシュー・ブリーフ8 – 災害リスクを減らし回復力を創る(UN- DESA)
 自然災害、非自然災害(世界銀行、国連)
 Rio+20のキャンペーンサイトでさらに詳しく読む

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翻訳協力:長谷川 香菜子さん


リオ+20キーワード集

Access to Land/ Land Rights (32)
Ensuring indigenous people and communities enjoy legal control and/or ownership of
land. The purchase and lease of vast tracts of land from poor, developing countries by
wealthier nations and international private investors has led to debate about whether land
investment is a tool for development or force of displacement.

Accountability (170)
Open, transparent policy and practice available for scrutiny and to ensure methods are
justifiable and followed. Refers to all levels of government/authorities but also corporate
social responsibility.

Adaptation (227)
Measures and approaches to deal with the [projected] consequences of climate change.
The term gets heavily used in the context of developing countries, as these countries are
likely to experience stronger effects.

Animal Welfare (31)
Assuring and maintaining the physical and psychological well-being of animals. In the
zero drafts the term is referenced as a key component of sustainable agriculture. Many
animal rights groups criticize industrial farming techniques as inhumane, unhealthy and
unsustainable.

Beyond GDP (30)
Developing a system and/or metrics to measure economic, societal and environmental
wealth, beyond purely growth-based measures. Such an approach would allow a more
comprehensive measurement of well-being, environmental health and progress towards a
Green Economy, taking into consideration current methodologies.

Biofuel (49)
Energy derived from renewable plant and animal materials. Examples of biofuels include
ethanol, biodiesel, green diesel and biogas. Criticism centres on potentially enhanced
greenhouse gas emissions and the compromising of developing countries’ food security
by displacement of, or increasing the price of, agricultural crops.

Blue Economy (22)
Healthy oceans provide tremendous economic, social, and environmental benefits that
directly support livelihoods around the globe, and further support life-sustaining
processes for the planet.

Capacity Building (147)
Also referred to as capacity development. A conceptual approach that focuses on
understanding the obstacles which inhibit people, governments and organizations from
realizing their developmental goals, and enhancing the abilities that will allow them to
achieve measurable and sustainable results, themselves.

Carrying Capacity (35)
The maximum population of a species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given
available, necessary conditions such as food, habitat and water. The earth’s carrying
capacity is its optimal load – a measure of its ability to sustain a population.

Certification Schemes (39)
Recognised and accountable standards which ensure products are sustainably
manufactured and consumed.

Climate Investment Fund (6)
Funds (the Clean Technology Fund and the Strategic Climate Fund) to help developing
countries pilot low-emissions and climate-resilient development, with support from major
development banks. With CIF support, 46 developing countries are piloting developments
in clean technology, forest management, renewable energy and energy access, and
climate-resilience.

Common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) (71)
One of the cornerstones of sustainable development, originating from the Rio
Declaration’s Principle 7 and since established as a principle of International
Environmental Law. It reflects the duty of States to share the burden of protection for
common resources, and the equity by which this burden is shared according to
circumstances and history. It informs in particular the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.

Consumption and Production (135)
Agenda 21 states that the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global
environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in
industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and
imbalances.

Consumption patterns (63)
The combination of qualities, quantities, acts and tendencies characterizing a community
or human group’s use of resources for survival, comfort and enjoyment. Usually put in the
context of ‘unsustainable’. In order to move in the direction of a green economy we must
change our consumption patterns.

Corporate Accountability (5)
Defined as the ability of those affected by a corporation to control that corporation’s
operations. These include environmental and social duties placed on directors to
counterbalance their existing duties on financial matters, and legal rights for local
communities to seek compensation when they have suffered as a result of directors
failing to uphold those duties.

Corporate Sustainability (17)
A business approach that creates long-term consumer and employee value by not only
creating a “green” strategy aimed towards protection or enhancement of the natural
environment, but also taking into consideration every dimension of how a business
operates in the social, cultural, and economic environment, with long-term transparency
and employee development.

Currency Tax (0)
A means of taxing ‘spot conversions’ of one currency into another, developed with the
intention of stabilising international currency by penalising short-term speculation.

Decoupling (34)
Separating economic activities and societal developments from negative environmental
impacts. Decoupling resource use from economic growth.

Desertification (117)
Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various
factors, including climatic variations and human activities.

Disaster Preparedness (41)
Measures undertaken to ensure countries, regions and internal assistance are ready to
deal with the effects of [natural] disasters. Climate change is expected to intensify the
frequency and impact of such events.

Ecocide (6)
A neologism used to refer to any large-scale destruction of the natural environment or
over-consumption of critical non-renewable resources.

Ecological Footprint (56)
Measures how much land and water (by area) a human population requires to produce
the resource it consumes and to absorb its GHG emissions.

Economic democracy (3)
The green economy transition should be planned and implemented through inclusive and
transparent participatory processes consistent with Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration.
Economic Democracy is rights to decent livelihood, food, health, shelter and other basic
necessities.

Ecosystem Approach (15)
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and
living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. It
promotes the consideration of actions on every component of the ecosystem.

Education for Sustainable Development (46)
Measures for building the promotion, understanding and application of sustainable
development into curriculums and classrooms, as dedicated courses or as part of wider
learning. In the classroom, sustainable development needs to be incorporated into the
curriculum.

Energy Access (43)
The physical availability of modern energy services to all members of a given nation or
community, to meet basic human needs at affordable prices. These energy services
should be reliable, sustainable, and, where feasible, from renewable energy or other lowcarbon energy sources; and include electricity and improved end-use devices such as
cookstoves,

Environmental Governance (91)
A governance system for the purpose of attaining environmentally sustainable
development, ideally comprising multi-level interactions (i.e., local, national,
international/global) among, but not limited to, state, market, and civil society formulating
and implementing policies in response to environment-related demands and inputs from
society; bound by rules, procedures, processes, and widely-accepted behaviour.

Family Planning/ Reproductive Rights (16)
Comprises education, information and resource provision, and recognises the legal rights
and freedoms of people to choose their own reproductive behaviour and enjoy the means
to do so, as well as to attain the highest possible standards of sexual and reproductive
health. Generally put in the context of a growing global population and the threat it places
on a shrinking supply of resources in order to avoid a tipping point.

Financial Stability (7)
The ability of a system, State or institution to facilitate and enhance [sustainable]
economic development, manage risks, and absorb shocks. Moreover, financial stability is
considered a continuum: changeable over time and consistent with multiple combinations
of the constituent elements of finance.

Financial Transaction Tax/Tobin Tax (33)
A Financial Transaction Tax is a tax on a wider range of international financial
transactions beyond just currencies. For example, banking and property transactions.

Fiscal Reform (15)
Used in the context of a green economy to imply the shift from the taxation of labour to
the taxation of resource consumption. Following the polluter pays principle, a system of
eco-taxes should particularly increase the “price of pollution”, the use of fossil fuels and
other non-renewable energies, and the emission of greenhouse gases.

Full cost accounting (5)
A system by which prices, public investments and policy decisions fully account for all
market and non-market benefits and costs so as to promote decisions that maximise net
public benefits.

Gender Equality (68)
Ensuring women’s participation in environmental decision-making at all levels; increasing
women’s participation in income-generating activities; ensuring women’s access to clean
and renewable energy; and incorporating the idea of gender equality in all green
economy investments and activities.

Green and Fair Economy (8)
Any concept of an economy which embodies sustainable development must also be a fair
one. The basic preconditions for this are: social cohesion, fairness, including intergenerational fairness, fair redistribution and solutions for social problems such as growing
inequality, lack of access to a whole range of resources, poverty and unemployment.

Green Economy Roadmap (66)
A strategy for a transition to a green economy. It should be prepared with transparent,
multi-stakeholder participatory processes that develop evidence-based policy
prescriptions.

Green Growth (98)
A path of economic growth which recognises the true value of, and uses natural
resources in a sustainable manner, as an alternative concept to economic growth
dependent on fossil fuels.

Green Jobs (118)
Anhy work which contributes to preserving or restoring environmental quality. Specifically,
but not exclusively, this includes jobs that help to protect ecosystems and biodiversity;
reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies; decarbonise the economy; and minimise or altogether avoid generation of all forms of waste
and pollution.

Green Stimulus (5)
Injections and investments to specifically promote environmentally sustainable
development, including green technologies, green jobs, and ecological restoration, while
working towards general economic prosperity. Roadmap documents could include a longterm needs assessment that would serve as the basis for future stimulus spending.

Health/ Well being (448)
Sustainable development is not only a systemic approach to improving the natural
environment and the economy, but to health and social well being too. The interlinkages
and mutual benefits of promoting environmental protection, social justice and public
health improvements, for example, are clear. For example, the provision of green
infrastructure in cities can provide wildlife habitats and carbon sequestration, but also
safe spaces for people to exercise and enjoy.

Inclusive Growth (18)
Refers both to the pace and the pattern of growth, which are interlinked and should be
addressed together to ensure benefits across society. Rapid growth is potentially
beneficial for substantial poverty reduction, but for this growth to be sustainable in the
long run it should be broad-based across sectors, and inclusive of the large part of a
country’s labour force.

Income Inequality (19)
The unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants
in an economy. Income inequality is often presented as the percentage of income to a
percentage of population

Intergenerational Equity (14)
The concept of promoting and ensuring fairness, justice and equal opportunity not only for
today’s society but for those of the future, particularly in terms of ecological/resource
rights and consumption opportunities.

Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development (7)
The proposed establishment of a scientific organisation, similar to the IPCC, which would
design a sustainable development research agenda for the 21
stcentury.

Internalization of externalities (4)
Building true social and environmental value into and throughout policy by developing
market values which reflect real social and environmental costs and benefits, so that the
natural and cultural environment is given due consideration in all decisions and the
polluter bears the cost of pollution.

International Court for the Environment/Environmental Tribunal (10)
The establishment of a court or tribunal body to specialise and provide expert judgement
in bi- or multilateral environmental disputes would mark a major step towards achieving
international justice for the environment and society. No such body currently exists to
allow non-State actors to bring cases against States, nor to universally/effectively preside
over transboundary issues such as pollution and resource misuse.

Investing in People (4)
The creation of quality jobs and decent work, investments in communities, investments in
relevant education/training and skills programmes and strong and efficient social
protection systems in the transition to a sustainable economy. General Education for
Sustainable Development (ESD) programmes require higher priority and support.

ISO 26000 (11)
The international corporate social responsibility standard. It is intended to provide
organisations with guidance concerning social responsibility and can be used as part of
public policy activities.

Japan (47)
Considered a primary case study for sustainable development. Japan has a difficult
decision on which energy path to take. The country can either continue consuming fossil
fuels/nuclear energy or pursue a frugal social life based on clean renewables. Japan is a
reoccurring theme throughout the submission documents. The ‘triple disaster’ has elicited
many sustainable development questions.

Just Transition (30)
There will be costs in making the transition to a low carbon, green economy in the pursuit
of sustainable development. Some States and actors are better able to bear those costs
than others and are more resilient to transitional changes. In the process of change, the
most vulnerable must be supported and protected – developing countries must have
access to appropriate financial and technical assistance, and citizens and communities
must have access to new skills and jobs.

Life Cycle Approach (40 submissions)
An approach which minimises the environmental footprint of all economic activity by
addressing the sustainability of each stage of a product, process, technology, service or
system’s development, and all of its resources and outputs. The life cycle of a product
starts at raw material extraction, research on conceptual design and development of
products and services, manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life treatment options
such as recycling, recovery and re-use or re-manufacturing. Critical questions about
costs, benefits, environmental responsibility and social impact are addressed. A life cycle
approach also helps identify hidden opportunities and accounts for unintended
consequences, spill over implications, and competition for resources.

Local Governments (118)
The agreements and strategies of international environmental conferences need to be
implemented on a local level. Mayors, MPS and community councils need to be educated
and empowered to address sustainable development.

Low Carbon Economy (13)
An economy focused on a minimal output of GHG emissions while ensuring decent
growth.

Market Mechanisms (29)
Price and market mechanisms such as taxes and tradable permits to reduce pollution,
waste, and resource depletion as part of policy efforts to foster a green economy.

MDGs (147)
As the Millennium Development Goals reach their close in 2015, questions are raised
over whether they are still relevant and achievable, and how they may be built upon or
incorporated into future actions and targets such as the proposed Sustainable
Development Goals.

Means of Implementation (MOI) (72)
The ‘how’ of the Summit’s proposals for action. Many sustainable development strategies
are strong in principle but difficult to implement. In order to execute, governments need
the knowledge and resources to fulfil their sustainable development commitments.

Millennium Declaration (24)
12 years after the Declaration, civil society is assessing if and how its Development Goals
are still feasible.

Mitigation (160)
Human intervention to reduce GHG emissions or enhance GHG sinks to minimise or
prevent the negative effects of climate change,. Examples include using fossil fuels more
efficiently for industrial processes or electricity generation, switching to renewable
energy solar energy, improving the insulation of buildings, and increasing forest
cover and other sinks to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue/Process (9)
The inclusion in decision-making processes of public, private and civil society, creating a
truly democratic and fair system of governance. The Internet and mailing lists, as well as
formal fora, should be put to practical use in consideration of the ‘silent majority’ at both
international and domestic levels.
National Sustainable Development Councils/ National Councils for Sustainable

Development (23)
Multi-stakeholder mechanisms that bring together representatives of civil society, private
enterprise and governments to ensure mass-based participation in planning and
policymaking, and in integrating the social, cultural, economic, environmental and other
dimensions of sustainable development into national action plans.

National Sustainable Development Strategies (22)
The coordination and integration of relevant policies and actions in multiple sectors, as
well as adequate monitoring and review mechanisms, with the participation of
government actors, civil society and the private sector. Governments have identified the
integration of climate change in such strategies and plans as an important goal.

Natural Resource Management (318)
Management encompassing the protection, enhancement and utilisation of natural
resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how
management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations.
Ombudsperson for Future Generations (4)
A mechanism to safeguard long-term sustainable development and the needs of future
generations at the global level. Proposals envisage this position as an AssistantSecretary-General of the UN, acting as an auditor or watchdog and cutting across
currently fragmented approaches to policy and law

Participation (334)
Refers to the need for multi-stakeholder/multi-level governance and involvement in the
demographic process towards sustainable development.

Planetary boundaries (41)
To avoid catastrophic environmental change humanity must stay within nine defined
‘planetary boundaries’ for a range of essential Earth-system processes.

Polluter pays (30)
A core principle of environmental governance by which the costs of pollution are borne by
those who cause it.

Poverty Alleviation (76)
A process which should draw on cooperation between developing and developed
countries, and include sustainable measures such as job creation, investment towards a
clean energy economy, and protection of indigenous rights and natural capital.

Precautionary Principle (53)
if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the
environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful,
the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking the action.

Principle 10/Access to Information (57)
Over a decade ago, Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration articulated public access to
information, participation in decision-making, and access to justice as key principles of
environmental governance. Proposals for outcomes from Rio+20 include a Convention on
Principle 10 and/or other steps to further its effect.

Public Private Partnership (13)
A collaborative process or structure between government and industry, at any level. Such
partnerships are expected to play a major role in building the essential knowledge and
skills required for the transition to a green economy.

Renewable Energy (204)
Energy natural, renewable resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal
heat. Investment and production in renewable energy is the foundation of a green
economy.
Resilience (146)

In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to
a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly. The term is
also applied as ‘climate resilience’, specifically.
Rights-based approach (20)

A strategy used by NGOs to reduce local communities’ dependency on aid by improving
government capacity. This practice blurs the distinction between human rights and
development. There are two stakeholder groups in rights-based development; the rights
holders, or the group who does not experience full rights; and the duty bearers, or the
institutions who are obligated to fulfil the rights of the rights holders. A rights-based
approach aims at strengthening the capacity of duty bearers and empowers the rights
holders.

Rio Principles (44)
One of the major outcomes of the original ‘Earth Summit’ in Rio de Janeiro, 1992. A set of
overarching principles for a new prosperity in which resources are shared, resilience is
built, and wealth and power are distributed to the many. The Principles have since been
well-established as cornerstones of sustainable development policy and practice, but their
relevance and application will be scrutinised at Rio+20.

SDGs (170)
A proposal to agree by 2015 a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to measure
progress against a range of socio-economic and environmental objectives, similar to and
perhaps building on the Millennium Development Goals.

Social Enterprises (9)
is an organization that applies business strategies to achieving philanthropic goals. Social
enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit.

Social Protection/Floor (91)
A basic set of social rights, services and facilities that every person should enjoy. The
United Nations suggests that a SPF could consist of two main elements that help to
realize human rights:
1. Universal access to essential services (such as health, education, housing, water and
sanitation and other services as nationally defined);
2. Social Transfers in cash or in kind, to guarantee income security, food security,
adequate nutrition, and access to essential services.

Social Inclusion (66)
People need to be at the centre of all policies geared towards achieving sustainable
development. Acknowledging that a reduction of social and economic inequalities is key
to sustainable development, particular attention should be given to the empowerment of
women, youth, indigenous peoples and other minority social groups as well as local
communities at risk of marginalisation, in order to ensure that all people can actively
participate and contribute to sustainable development.

Social Justice (85)
The process or attainment of an egalitarian society or institution that is based on the
principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that
recognizes the dignity of every human being.

Strengthening/Reforming UNEP (14)
Proposals have been made to increase UNEP’s authority in setting the global
environmental agenda and its coherence with sustainable development as a whole within
the UN system. (See UNEO and WEO, below)

Subsidiarity (16)
The process of devolving political decisions to the lowest possible administrative and
political level, and as close to the citizens as possible.

Subsidies (167)
Dedicated funds or rewards (usually from government) for pursuing a given approach,
standard or technique, or delivering a given output. Subsidies are criticised for unfairly
distorting market economies and for promoting unsustainable production practices.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food (21)
The submissions discuss the importance of increasing food productivity, while decreasing
the environmental impact of the farming industry.

Sustainable Development Council (61)
Submissions include proposals for a Council which would address issues such as the
nexus of water, energy and food security; climate change impacts,; and economic reform
post Rio+20. It is vitally important for governments to consider the inter-linkages between
these areas, most of which do not have a place in the UN system for discussion
individually or collectively.

Sustainable Production (88)
The creation of goods and services using processes and systems which are nonpolluting; conserving of energy and natural resources; economically viable; safe and
healthy for workers, communities, and consumers; socially and creatively rewarding.

Sustainable Productivity (3)
Enhancing sustainable productivity should be at the centre of efforts to make
manufacturing, construction and agriculture both environmentally and economically
productive yet fair.

Sustainable Tourism (25)
Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and
environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment
and host communities.

Sustainable/Public Procurement (70)
Public procurement is the process by which government departments or agencies
purchase goods and services from the private sector. The procurement process at both
the national and sub- national level should be based on a sustainability criteria.

The Commons (21)
Resources that are ‘owned’ or shared between or among individuals, communities
and populations, such as landscapes and healthy air.

Tipping point (18)
A point or threshold at which a system or process is irreversibly damaged or significantly
altered. Human activity has caused or facilitated the crossing of some boundaries, while
others are in clear danger of being crossed.

Transparency (166)
Transparency is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are
performed. All levels of decision-making should be clear and accessible to civil society.

United Nations Environment Organisation (11)
The proposal to reform UNEP to give it equal footing with other UN agencies and
institutions.

UPR/Peer Review (72)
A process to allow civil society to give guidance and advice on policies. Would create a
dialogue between states and stakeholders for sustainable development decision-making.

Urbanization (85)
The physical growth of urban areas. Such expansion of area and population can cause
significant social, health, environmental and economic risks. Infrastructure and policy
should be designed for sustainable urban growth to mitigate and combat such risks.

Waste Management (90)
The collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring
of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and
the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health and the environment.
In the zero draft waste management is referenced as an area of opportunity to reuse
natural resources, especially waste water.

Water and Sanitation (64)
It is a basic human right to have access to clean and safe drinking water. Inadequate
access to safe water and sanitation services, coupled with poor hygiene practices, kills
and sickens thousands of people every day.

Water-Food-Energy Nexus (41)
Stakeholders are aiming to develop a common policy agenda to achieve Water, Energy
and Food security by providing specific recommendations on how to position the Nexus
perspective in the Rio + 20 process.

World Environment Organization (8)
A proposal to reform UNEP to operate along the lines of the existing WHO or WTO, for
example, and build on UNEP’s UN standing. The ‘WEO’ would create a single umbrella
organisation to unify the current fragmented approach to environmental governance and
‘cluster’ disparate MEAs.